Periodontal Treatment

Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, affecting approximately 85% of dogs and 80% of cats to some extent. While early-stage disease (gingivitis) is treatable with a dental prophylaxis, the progression to periodontitis involves tissue destruction, including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and bone. Treating periodontitis requires more complex interventions as a prophylactic scale and polish are insufficient for regrowing tissues, especially bone.

Challenges of Periodontitis

Periodontitis involves the destruction of various tissues, with bone loss posing significant challenges. Apart from the risk of tooth loss, bone destruction weakens the jaws. Soft tissue can experience some regrowth, but the periodontal ligament is challenging to regenerate. While bone can be stimulated to regrow, the slow process allows soft tissue to invade the area first, hindering proper regeneration.

Periodontal Treatment Procedures

Deep Pocket Cleaning:

  • Gingiva around affected teeth often forms deep pockets conducive to plaque growth.
  • Deep pocket cleaning through curettage can improve the environment, encouraging some tissue reattachment.

Gum Flap Surgery:

  • Gingival surgery may be performed to enhance coverage of exposed roots.
  • A flap of gingival tissue from adjacent areas or a gingival graft from another mouth location can be used.

Bone Grafting:

  • Advanced periodontitis can result in bone destruction around tooth roots.
  • Bone grafting involves using special techniques with grafts and membranes.
  • Grafting materials stimulate existing bone to grow and regenerate in areas where grafting occurs.
  • Membranes are surgically implanted to prevent swift invasion of soft tissue into the grafting material, supporting proper bone regeneration.

Aim of Procedures

All these procedures aim to regenerate tissues covering the tooth roots, striving for as normal a condition as possible. Deep pocket cleaning improves the pocket environment, gum flap surgery enhances root coverage, and bone grafting stimulates bone regeneration. These interventions are performed in specific cases and circumstances to promote appropriate healing of periodontal tissues.